How Firefox leaks visited sites
I consider Firefox to be a rather secure and reliable browser with reasonable security and privacy setting. I was rather horrified when I found out that it sends the name of visited domains to other servers around the world. Here is why it does it, and what you can do about it.
The Online Certificate Status Protocol (%OCSP)
The information Firefox sends relates to OCSP, a protocol used to ensure the validity of an SSL certificate. Certificates which have been compromised or need to be revoked for other reasons, should no longer be accepted by the browser. When the heartbleed bug became public, it became even more obvious why a mechanism is required to keep the web (somewhat) secure. %OCSP is one such mechanism, but in it's current state, it's terrible.
The way %OCSP works in Firefox is that upon visiting an encrypted website, the browser sends a request to the %CA which signed the website's certificate. The %CA will then answer with a report on the certificate's revokation status, thereby noting the user in cases where the certificate, and hence the connection with the website, should not be trusted anymore.
Unfortunately, the whole method doesn't actually add security but instead creates new privacy problems.
When the browser checks a certificate's validity via %OCSP, it notifies a third party (the %CA) about which website the user is accessing and when he is doing it. This can mean that when you access your mail provider homepage or your favorite local news site over https, a request will be send to a server, possibly on the other side of the world, to tell that server about your action. Such information should be none of the %CA's business, but Firefox happily sends it nonetheless.
What makes the story even worse is the fact that this method doesn't even add any security. Adam Langley explains it better than I could, so if you are interested in the topic, you should read his explanation on why %OCSP is basically snake oil and fails in making the web more secure.
Plugging the hole
Alternative methods like OCSP stapling and CRL exist and don't suffer from those problems, so there is no need to keep %OCSP activated in the browser. Chrome has it disabled by default; you can disable it in Firefox by following these brief instructions:
- Open a new tab in Firefox and visit the URL about:config.
- Click the I'll be careful, I promise button.
OCSPinto the search/filter field.
- Double click on
security.OCSP.enabledand set its value to
Done. You just stoped Firefox from needlessly leaking private browsing information to other parties. Happy browsing!